Introduction: Meconium aspiration is an important cause of respiratory distress and mortality in the newborn. Steroid therapy is one of the strategies in management due to its anti-inflammatory action. So far enough evidence is not available in its favour.
Objectives: To assess the utility of intravenous (IV) dexamethasone in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and to study any immediate adverse outcome and/or increase in sepsis in newborns receiving dexamethasone.
Method: A prospective, interventional study was carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary hospital. Newborns were enrolled using selection criteria and were randomized into an intervention group and a control group. After collecting baseline data, the intervention group was administered 0.5mg/kg IV dexamethasone in two divided doses starting from the age of 24 to 36 hours. A total of 6 doses were administered. Outcome measures noted were: period of oxygen dependency, duration of NICU stay, initiation of oral feeds and development of sepsis in both intervention group and control group. Any adverse effects with dexamethasone therapy was noted in babies randomized as intervention group. Investigations and management were carried out as per unit protocol. SPSS Software version 23 was used for statistical purposes. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant.
Results:Both intervention group and control group were comparable in subject characteristics. Duration of NICU stay less than 6 days and oxygen requirement less than 50 hours were significantly more in the intervention group. There was no increase in sepsis or any other adverse effect noticed in the intervention group. Initiation of feeding was comparable in both groups. Mechanical ventilation was needed in 4 in the intervention group and there was one death in the control group.
Conclusions: In Shri B.M Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Vijayapur Karnataka, IV dexamethasone was found to be useful in MAS in reduction of NICU stay and oxygen requirement with no increase in sepsis or any other adverse effects.
Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 2018; 47(1): 21-26
How to Cite:
Patil, M.M., Lakhkar, B.B. & Patil, S.V., (2018). Dexamethasone and outcome of meconium aspiration syndrome: Vijayapur, Karnataka experience. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health. 47(1), pp.21–26.