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Original Articles

Comparative study of follow-up in high-risk infants and normal infants for development and neurological status in tertiary hospital of Navimumbai

Authors:

Vijay Baburao Sonawane ,

Department of Paediatrics, D. Y. Patil University, School of Medicine, Nerul , Maharashtra, IN
About Vijay
Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics 
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Sheenu Veeranna Gupta,

NaviMumbai Tertiary Hospital, Maharashtra, IN
About Sheenu
Consulting Paediatrician 
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Veeranna Kotrashetti,

Department of Paediatrics, D. Y. Patil University, School of Medicine, Nerul, Maharashtra, IN
About Veeranna
Professor and Head of Unit 
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Prashant Abusaria

Department of Paediatrics, D. Y. Patil University, School of Medicine, Nerul, Maharashtra, IN
About Prashant
Resident (PG) 
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Abstract

Background: The term ‘high-risk infants’ denotes infants who should be closely observed by experienced doctors and nurses. There are numerous studies evaluating the outcome of asphyxiated babies, preterm babies and extremely low birth weight infants. However, there are very few studies that evaluate the outcome in terms of a development and neurological status of a composite high-risk cohort.


Objectives:  1) Study the development and neurological status of high-risk infants and normal infants comparing the patterns. 2) Early detection of development failures and development delays. 3) Early initiation of interventional therapy.


Method:  A hospital-based prospective case control study was carried out at the Department of Paediatrics, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Nerul, NaviMumbai. Consecutive type of nonprobability sampling was used for selection of cases. Thirty high-risk neonates were included in the study as Cases. Thirty Controls were also taken, who were without any high risk factor. At follow up, developmental and neurological status assessment was done. Neonatal reflexes and goniometry were done for measurement of various angles at the joints. Trivandrum developmental scoring was used to assess development while Amiel Teison method was employed to assess the neurological status. Ophthalmological assessment was done for neonatal screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and BERA test was done for hearing assessment. Data were analysed using statistical software SPSS version 21.


Results: Overall, 33 (55%) newborns were females and 27 (45%) were males with no significant differences between study and control groups (p=1.0). All controls were term babies while in study group 16 (53.3%) were pre-term and 4 (13.3%) were post-term. Of the 30 cases with risk factors, 25 were low birth weight. Mean gestational age and birth weight were significantly less in Cases as compared to Controls (p<0.05).  On follow up, 2 (6.7%) cases had a head circumference below the 3rd percentile and 11 (36.7%) cases had deranged reflexes. Only 1 case had abnormal ophthalmic examination findings and none had auditory abnormalities. On neurological assessment by Amiel Tison scale, 66.7% cases were observed to have deranged neurological development. At 6 months of age, 36.7% of the cases with risk factors had developmental delay.


Conclusions: In this study the incidence of developmental and neuro-developmental delay in high-risk neonates was significantly high with low birth weight and prematurity being the main contributors.

Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 2021; 50(4): 583-588

How to Cite: Sonawane, V.B., Gupta, S.V., Kotrashetti, V. and Abusaria, P., 2021. Comparative study of follow-up in high-risk infants and normal infants for development and neurological status in tertiary hospital of Navimumbai. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 50(4), pp.583–588. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/sljch.v50i4.9842
Published on 05 Dec 2021.
Peer Reviewed

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