Histological pattern and clinical outcome of childhood malignancies in a Nigerian tertiary care centre
Obiora Jude Uchendu ,
Delta State University, NG
About Obiora Jude
Senior Lecturer, Department of Histopathology
Honorary Consultant, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
Akpofure Patrick Ekpebe
About Akpofure Patrick
Academician from Nigeria with a passion for paediatric oncology
Background: Childhood cancer is an emerging, poorly addressed public health problem in developing countries. Information on the incidence and mortality of childhood cancer is scarce in these countries, despite its relevance in decision making in health sector reforms.
Objectives: To describe the histological pattern and clinical outcome of childhood malignancies in a Nigerian tertiary care centre.
Method: This is a retrospective study of childhood cancer (<18 years) using the age, gender, histological diagnosis and their clinical outcome from 2014 to 2019 in Delta State University Teaching Hospital (DELSUTH), using information from histopathology records and patient’s case notes. Data was analysed with Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and presented in tables
Results: Fifty-eight cancer cases were managed from 2014-2019, consisting of 35 males and 23 females with age range and mean age of 8 months to 17.5 years and 7.6 years respectively. The age distribution was as follows: <1years: 1.7%; 1-<5 years 29.3%; 5-<10 years 36.2%; 10-<15 years 24.1% and 15-<18 years 8.6%. The major histological types encountered with their corresponding incidence are nephroblastoma (20.7%), leukaemia (13.8%), yolk sac tumour (10.3%), rhabdomyosarcoma (8.6%), neuroblastoma (6.9%), osteosarcoma (6.9%), retinoblastoma (6.9%), Burkitt lymphoma (5.2%), liver cancer (5.2%), Hodgkin lymphoma (5.2%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5.2%). Mortality and treatment default rate were 31% and 19% respectively.
Conclusions: This study provided an overview of childhood cancer in Delta State, Nigeria. We noted male predominance, with the maximum cases in the 5-10 year age group. Nephroblastoma, leukaemia, yolk sac tumour and rhabdomyosarcoma were the commonest malignancies. We also observed excessive mortality, high default rate and poor treatment outcomes.
Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 2021; 50(2): 253-260
How to Cite:
Uchendu, O.J. and Ekpebe, A.P., 2021. Histological pattern and clinical outcome of childhood malignancies in a Nigerian tertiary care centre. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 50(2), pp.253–260. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/sljch.v50i2.9566
05 Jun 2021.