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Aetiological profile of global developmental delay in children under 5 years of age: experience from a tertiary referral centre

Authors:

J. M. Udara Amawasi Bandara ,

Sirimavo Bandaranaike Specialized Children’s Hospital, LK
About J. M. Udara Amawasi

Sirimavo Bandaranaike Specialized Children’s Hospital, Sri Lanka

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Jagath Munasinghe

Sirimavo Bandaranaike Specialized Children’s Hospital, Sri Lanka, LK
About Jagath
Sirimavo Bandaranaike Specialized Children’s Hospital, Sri Lanka
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Abstract

Introduction: Global developmental delay (GDD) is a common paediatric condition with an estimated prevalence of 1-3%. Aetiological diagnosis assists in preventive strategies, prognosis, assessing recurrent risk and treatment.

Objectives: To describe the aetiological profile of GDD, to identify preventable causes and to determine the percentage of undetermined aetiology.

Method: A descriptive study was conducted over a period of 5 months in a paediatric neurology clinic at a tertiary referral centre which included children with GDD below the age of 5 years. Interviewer administered standardised questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, while clinical data, examination and investigation results were extracted from the neonatal and neurology clinic records.

Results: A total of 185 patients met the inclusion criteria (female: male ratio 1:1.4). Mean age at recognition of GDD was 15.2 ± 1.99 months. An aetiological diagnosis was determined in 108 (58.4%), which was categorized under hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) (n=51, 27.6%), structural brain abnormalities (n=28, 15.1%), post infectious (n=13, 7.0%), genetic/chromosomal (n=7, 3.8%), embryo-fetopathy (n=5, 2.7%) and hypothyroidism (n=3, 1.6%). Aetiology was undetermined with the available clinical details and investigation results in 62 (33.5%). A possible diagnosis of genetic/chromosomal origin was suspected in 11 (5.9%) and a possible diagnosis of an inborn error of metabolism was suspected in 4 (2.2%) from historical and examination findings

Conclusions: In the paediatric neurology clinic at the tertiary referral centre, HIE, structural brain abnormalities, post infectious, genetic/ chromosomal, embryo-fetopathy and hypothyroidism were the identified causes of GDD. Aetiology was undetermined with the available clinical details and investigation results in 33.5%.

Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 2020; 49(4): 361-368

How to Cite: Bandara, J.M.U.A. and Munasinghe, J., 2020. Aetiological profile of global developmental delay in children under 5 years of age: experience from a tertiary referral centre. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 49(4), pp.361–368. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/sljch.v49i4.9272
Published on 05 Dec 2020.
Peer Reviewed

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