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Clinico-haematological profile of children with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia

Authors:

Varsha H Chauhan,

Department of Paediatrics, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sewagram, India, IN
About Varsha
Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sewagram, India
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Richa Chaudhary Chaudhary ,

Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, India, IN
About Richa Chaudhary
Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, India
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Sachin Nage

DNB Family Medicine, MGIMS, Sewagram, India, IN
About Sachin

DNB Family Medicine, MGIMS, Sewagram, India

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Abstract


Background: In India, megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is a major cause of nutritional anaemia in children.

Objectives: To assess the magnitude and study the clinical profile of megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency in the age group 3 months to 12 years.

Setting and design: This was an observational study carried out in Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sewagram, Central India, from December 2015 to June 2017.

Method: All children visiting the hospital OPD or admitted in wards during the study period were screened for anaemia and those having haemoglobin <11g/dl (children <6 years) or <12g/dl (6-12 years) were included in the study. Total 110 children were included in study and their clinical and haematological profile was studied. Statistical analysis software used was SPSS 22.0 version and Graph Pad Prism 6.0 version.

Results:Out of 110 anaemic children, 22 had megaloblastic anaemia with vitamin B12 levels below 200ng/L and incidence was maximum in the age group of 6 to 12 months. Most common symptom was pallor followed by loss of appetite and fatigue. On peripheral smear examination, 14 patients (63.6%) had macrocytosis and hyper-segmented polymorphs and 4 patients (18.2%) had pancytopenia.

Conclusions: Out of 110 anaemic children 20% had megaloblastic anaemia with vitamin B12 levels below 200ng/L. More than 75% of megaloblastic anaemia due to B12 deficiency occurred in the 6 months to 6 years age group. On peripheral smear,   64% had macrocytosis and hypersegmented polymorphs and 18% had pancytopenia.

Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 2020; 49(4): 320-324

How to Cite: Chauhan, V.H., Chaudhary, R.C. and Nage, S., 2020. Clinico-haematological profile of children with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 49(4), pp.320–324. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/sljch.v49i4.9261
Published on 05 Dec 2020.
Peer Reviewed

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